注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

老 农的博客

有缘使你我相逢相识

 
 
 

日志

 
 

高中英语期末复习短文改错导学案  

2011-12-16 15:53:50|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

高中英语期末复习短文改错导学案

一、短文改错题解题策略与技巧

(一)考查方向

短文改错的设错题一般有两类:语法错误和逻辑错误。语法错误包括词法错误和句法错误,如:冠词、介词、名词单复数、动词的时态和语态、非谓语动词、主谓一致、形容词、副词、代词、连词和语义重复等方面;逻辑错误涉及整体理解、语言运用和逻辑推理判断。

在试卷中,在试题导语中加入说明“假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的作文。”这就说明短文改错的宗旨就是针对我们中国学生在英语写作中常见的尤其是“中国式英语”错误而设计的。

(二)备考策略

1. 牢固掌握语法知识,建立清晰的语法框架

 在平时复习练习中,要把主要语法知识复习透彻,尤其对各种词类的句法作用做到了如指掌。只有把语法知识的清晰框架结构建立起来,才能在做短文改错时思路清晰,切中考点。 

2. 书面表达与短文改错相结合

在书面表达训练中一定要提高运用语言的准确性。写完不要等老师批改,先把自己的习作当作一篇短文改错来修改,看看时态运用是否得当,词类应用是否正确,名词的人称和单复数是否有误等。

(三)做题技巧

1. 浏览全文,掌握大意 

通读短文,把握全篇主旨,弄清上下文的逻辑关系。有时孤立地分析某个句子,其结构正确、语义通顺,无错可改,但如果联系上下文,便会发现有的句子中有不合逻辑的地方,须作出改正2. 反复阅读,逐句找错

读懂文章后,要逐句分析在句法、语法、行文逻辑方面是否有错。具体注意以下几点:

(1)整篇文章的语态、时态是否前后一致。

(2)名词的数与格,名词前该不该用冠词,用什么冠词。 

(3)习惯用语、固定搭配是否完整,有无缺少或多余介词、副词现象。  

(4)非谓语动词的形式运用是否正确。  

(5)并列复合句中的连词运用是否正确。

(6)主从复合句中的关系代词/副词、从属连词/代词、副词的运用是否正确;主从复合句中的定语从句、名词从句、状语从句的形式及运用是否正确。

(7)代词的运用与结构是否正确,尤其是人称代词、物主代词、反身代词以及it作形式主语/宾语的用法是否正确。

(8)形容词、副词的用法,包括形容词/副词的比较级、最高级的用法是否正确。

3. 由易到难,各个击破

 改错要从最简单熟悉的项目入手,先从语法角度入手,再从逻辑方面考虑,最后推敲难题。

4. 检查核对,反复推敲  

最后反复浏览核对改后的全文,看全篇是否语义通顺。要检查是否完全按照短文改错题型的要求和规范做题。

二、口诀巧解短文改错

下面从语法和逻辑的角度,用口诀的形式,向同学们介绍英语短文改错中最常见的几类错误。

动词形,名词数,

注意形容词副词;

非谓动词细辨别,

习惯用法要记住;

句子成分多分析,

逻辑错误须关注。

一、动词形

主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和语态错误,以及主、谓不一致的错误。例如:

1. My favourite sport is football. I was a member of our school football team. 

                                                     am  

2. Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library.                 

                                           are  

上述两例分别属于时态错误和主、谓不一致错误。找出此类错误的关键是树立牢固的时态概念,注意短文内容发生或存在的时间,保持时间概念的一致性。

二、名词数

指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表现为将名词复数写成单数。例如:

1. …so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject.                    

                                                              subjects

三、 区分形和副

及区分形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用法。这也是高考短文改错的常考点。例如:

1. I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together.                  

                                     wonderful

2. Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family.              

   Unfortunately

需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、

形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。

四、非谓动词细辨别

这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。例如:

1. …in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football.            

                                                        interested

2. Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also …    

  playing 

3. My parents love me… and will do all they can ∧ make sure…        

                                                                            to   

上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语,和不定式作目的状语。一般的,现在分词有主动态和进行时的含义,而过去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义,不定式有将来时态的含义。

五、习惯用法要记住

主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识。这也是历年高考的常考点,其错误表现形式主要有三种:

多词、少词和搭配错误。例如:

1. It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and…    

                             of   

2. We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves.  

                                                                                            of

六、句子成分多分析

不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结

构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如:

1. They ∧eager to know everything about China and…              

           were

2. I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China.                     

                             which

第一例漏掉了谓语动词were,这是由于习惯的影响而导致的错误;第二例则是词类与它在句子中的成分不相符,where是副词,不能作主语。

七、逻辑错误须关注

与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如:

1. The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home.                 

                           their 

2. First, let me tell you something more about myself.       

3. … no way of setting the matter except by selling the set. Now someone at home reads instead.      

                                                                                                    everyone

上述第一例中的主语是Smiths(史密斯夫妇俩),因此后面的his不合逻辑。第二例中的more在这儿表“再”的意思,才开始告诉别人,怎么能说“再告诉你一些事”?第三例讲的是为了解决看电视时的争端,“我们”把电视机卖了;晚上没电视看了,所以与从前一样,大家又都读书了,所以该用everyone。

除了上述错误类型外,常考的错误形式还有:连词but, and, or和so的用法错误(可以归类为逻辑错误),以及冠词的用法错误等。例如:

1. She was smiling but nodding at me.                      

                             and 

2. It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest.           

                                                                          or 

3. We may be one family and live under a  same roof.           

                                                              the

下面的短文改错题较全面地反映了本文的口诀。现在请你试着做一做,然后参阅题后的答案与简析。

Last week my parents and I took a two-day trip to Emei Mountain in Sichuan. As everyone knows, it’s famous Mountain have all kinds of plants and animals. The weather was fine. It was about noon we arrived at the foot of  the mountain, the three of them were very excited. As we climbed the mountain, we ed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories. On the way up I was busy taking picture since the scenery was so beautiful. The time passes quickly. Evening came down. We spent the night in a hotel at the top of the mountain. The food was expensive and the service was  good. I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched the pillow.

 

答案与简析:  famous前加上a。(名词数)/  have改为with/having  / we前面加when,引导一个时间状语从句。(句子成分多分析)/ them→us (逻辑错误须关注) / visiting→visited(非谓动词细辨别)/ picture→pictures(名词数)/ passes→passed(动词形) / 去掉down(习惯用法要记住)/ and→but(but, and, or和so)/ 去掉at(句子成分多分析 / 习惯用法要记住)。

 

短文改错练习

下面短文中有10处语言错误。请在有错误的地方增加、删除或修改某个单词。

       增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写上该加的词。       删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。

       修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写上修改后的词。      

( 1 )

One rainy day while I was walking home with one of my friend, a truck came to a stop besides us.The driver put the window down and offered us a umbrella because he found we were wet through.I stood there and couldn’t believe in that a complete stranger is so thoughtful.The man insisted,so I grateful accepted the offer,thanked him and watched the truck disappear down the road.This man might need the umbrella himself, and he preferred to give it to everyone else.It was a lesson to us that it was possible give without expect anything in return.

( 2 )

When I was in high school, most of my friend had bicycles.I hoped I could also have it .One day I saw a second-hand bicycle, that was only one hundred yuan .I asked my father the money.But he said he could only give me half of the money. He should find the other half myself. So I went to sell newspapers after the school. My father was pleased if I showed him the money a month after. He gives me the other fifty.You can imagine how much happy I was when I rode to school on my own bicycle.

( 3 )

Dear Mrs.Winthorp,

So my first week at college is over!No lectures this morning so I think I’d e-mail you and let you know what things are going. I’m glad to say that anything has worked out fine in the dorm.I remember asking for a room as far away from the lifts as possible and they find me a comfortable one on second floor.There are two girls from my course here and I plan to make friend with them so that we can help each other on the course work.Everyone else seems very nice and warmly here.

Well,I had better to stop now.I’m going to attend mine first lesson this afternoon, for I’ve got some preparation to make.Keep in touch.

                                                                                                                                      Best,

                                                                                                                                            Carol

 

( 4 )

Dear Alice,

I have just got some good news to tell to you.I win a national prize for painting last week.My father was so pleasing that he suggested I go to England for a holiday.I’d like to staying there for half a month,visiting place of interest or practicing my English as well. We’ve been writing to each for nearly a year now.I have often dreamed of talk face to face with you.I imagine you’ll be at vacation yourself by that time. Perhaps we could go out to doing some shopping.

 ( 5 )

Time is valuable but limit. There’s a famous saying,“Time is money”, this shows the importance of time.When time has gone,it will never return back. It is a pity when many people make poor use of time.They spend precious time sleeping, drinking and traveling.They don’t realize wasting time is equal to waste part of their life.They always regret having made a little achievement so far.Therefore,we should form the habit of value time.Do not put off what can be done today by tomorrow.Laziness will not only bring us failure, but also lead us on the road of poverty and even death.

 ( 6 )

Dear Editor,

My name is called Zhang Hong.I am a middle school student.When I go to the school every day,I can see a lot of sellers outside around our school walls, sell vegetables, fruits,fish,meat and so on.Some even make dishes in the opening air. They often shout at the top of their voices in order draw the passers-by’s attention. We could hear the noises in the classroom and cannot concentrate on our lessons. Beside, they also make the streets dirt, smelly and crowded. How a shame! How we want to get the situation improved and have our lessons in a quiet place! That’s how I write to you for help!

( 7 )

Every summer many people, girls and women, so well as boys and men, trying to swim from England to France or from France to England.The distance at the nearest point was only about 21.7 miles,but because the strong tide,they usually have to swim more than twice as far.The first man succeeded in swimming the English Channel was a captain, an Englishmen.That was in August 1895. Since then on there have been many more successful swimmers.In 1960, a Canada crossed the Channel within 10 hours and 23 minutes. Because sea is quite cold,swimmers cover their bodies in grease(油脂).

( 8 )

My classmates and I worked as volunteer in Beijing Paralympics in September 13.Early in the morning at 7∶20 we gathered in the National Stadium, namely“the Bird’s Nest”.

As soon as we got into it ten minutes late, we started to do some cleaning.From 9∶00 am to 4∶00 pm,we tried our best help the disabled athletes to get ready for their competitions, leading the audience to their seats and keep order.It was until 12∶00 that we had lunch and took a rest,which last about an hour.We stopped working at 4∶00. Though it was a tired job,We felt that it an honor to serve the disabled friends from all over the world.

( 9 )

Dear John,

How nice to hear from you! In your letter you asked me how to keep health. I would like to give you some advice.  As you know, our teenagers grow very fast, so we need plenty nutritious food,such as fish,meat,and beans, specially fresh vegetables and fruits.You’d better not to eat too much sweet. Also,you should take exercises regularly instead of studying in the classroom all the times. For example,you can play basketball and swim after school. What’s more,having enough sleep are very important. So I advise you to have at least eight hours of sleep every day and not to stay up too lately. Only in this way can you keep fitness. 

Best wishes!

                                                                                                                                    Yours,

                                                                                                                                            Tom

 ( 10 )

Dear Sally,

      Now I’d like to tell you something about my part-time jobs this summer vacation,in which I worked like a guide in a travel agency.The work was interesting but tired.I think it was helpful to work this holiday.It was the first time that I have earned money on my own.I’ve come to understand how hard my parents work to support for the family.I used to keep on ask them for money,but now I’ll never waste money and learn to share worry with my parent. I’ve learnt how to get along well with others.What’s worse, I’ve gained some working and social experience and I have learnt something can’t be learnt from textbooks. All these will be good for my future. In the word,I had a wonderful and valuable summer vacation.

                                                                                                                                        Yours,

                                                                                                                                             Li Bing

 ( 11 )

The main purpose of newspapers are to provide news.If you examine newspapers closely,you find that there is all sort of news: accidents,floods,fires,wars, sports, books,etc.The news cover everything that happens to people and their surroundings. Sometimes there are news items which are very interested. A news report is usual short, except when it is very important, but has a lot of information.It is also writing in short paragraphs.The first paragraph is in the fact a summary of the news items.It gives all the necessary information, what, when, where, how, and why.

 

  评论这张
 
阅读(4233)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017